An impromptu agreement between the United States and Saudi Arabia to add more supply to increasingly tight oil markets is perceived as a test of the kingdom’s ability to pump more crude — and could further antagonize Iran and Venezuela, as both countries grapple with deteriorating conditions in their respective economies.

Barely a week after OPEC ‘s decision to ramp up oil supplies, President Donald Trump surprised the world on Saturday by announcing a new side agreement with the Saudis to smooth over supply shortages from crisis-hit producers, Iran and Venezuela . Both countries resisted the oil cartel’s decision last month’s agreement, even though OPEC demurred on how much it would boost supply.

The president and King Salman agreed that Saudi Arabia would add more output to a market that’s seen crude shoot to its highest level in more than 3 years above $74 per barrel.

According to Trump, the world’s largest oil producer will inject up to 2 million barrels a day to world oil markets — a figure Saudi officials did not immediately verify in a readout confirming the call between Trump and Salman.

Gas prices have risen in tandem with crude, ramping up political pressure on Trump as he fights a multi-front trade dispute that has roiled markets and threatens the global growth outlook.

Meanwhile, the US-Saudi deal represents a challenge to market fundamentals. If true, the 2 million barrel per day figure cited by Trump is the upper end of Saudi Arabia’s excess crude supply, which ranges between 1.5 million and 2 million barrels per day, according to estimates from the Energy Information Administration.

“This is the biggest public test of Saudi’s spare capacity,” noted Helima Croft, global head of commodity strategy at RBC Capital.

Separately, the agreement is also fraught with geopolitical consequences. Iran — which along with Venezuela resisted OPEC’s deal to ramp up capacity — is being targeted with a new round of sanctions meant to squeeze the…

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